Gene-editing summit supports some research in human embryos
Three-day meeting calls for further discussions on modifications to the gene pool.
Gene-editing technology should not be used to modify human embryos that are intended for use in establishing a pregnancy, an international summit declared in a statement issued on 3 December.
The International Summit on Human Gene Editing also called for cautious development of medical applications of the technology that cannot be passed on to future generations — such as correction of mutations causing sickle-cell disease or modification of immune cells to target cancer.
But the summit statement, authored by a 12-member organizing committee, cautioned that many technical and ethical issues should be settled before anyone attempts so-called ‘germline’ editing — the deletion of a gene prenatally in an effort to erase an inherited disease from a person and prevent them from passing it to their offspring.
“It would be irresponsible to proceed with any clinical use of germline editing unless and until (i) the relevant safety and efficacy issues have been resolved … and (ii) there is broad societal consensus about the appropriateness of the proposed application,” the statement said.
The organizing committee stopped short of calling for a ban on editing human embryos and germ cells for basic research. “We don't want to slam the door on this idea forever,” said biochemist Jennifer Doudna of the University of California, Berkeley.
The three-day international summit took place at the the US National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine in Washington DC. The meeting was jointly hosted by the US academies, the UK Royal Society and the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Some ethicists and a few scientists at the summit expressed fear that even altering embryos that aren’t intended for implantation will pave the way toward germline editing. And some worried that public opposition to embryo research could cause a backlash against use of genome editing as therapy. “I don’t want even a shadow of （a shadow of原文有两个a shadow of） a concern about the germline stuff to fall on efforts to treat HIV or [beta-thalassemia] or sickle cell,” said Fyodor Urnov, a scientist at Sangamo BioSciences in Richmond, California.
与会部分伦理学家和少数科学家表达了这样的担忧，他们认为即便改变胚胎的目的并不在于移植也依旧会为生殖细胞编辑铺平道路。同时，有人担心公众对胚胎研究的反对可能会导致他们强烈抵制将基因编辑用于医疗。来自Sangamo 生物科学公司的科学家Fyodor Urnov说：“我不想在担忧生殖细胞这类东西的阴影之下致力于治疗HIV、地中海贫血或者镰刀型红细胞。”
But others saw an embryo research ban as unrealistic: even if some researchers agree to abstain from editing embryos, or if some countries ban it outright, others will continue the work, argued George Church, a geneticist at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. “You create a nexus for your worst nightmares,” he said.
The work now continues: over the next year, scientists and ethicists from the three hosting countries will convene to examine issues raised at the meeting. Their consensus report is scheduled to be released in late 2016.