标题：Supreme Court: Same-sex couples can marry in all 50 states
The Supreme Court ruled Friday that same-sex couples have a right to marry nationwide, in a historic decision that invalidates gay marriage bans in more than a dozen states.
●historic：历史性的 a historic occasion / decision / victory 历史性的时刻/决定/胜利 historical：历史学的；和历史有关的historical figure历史人物，historical background历史背景 ，historical documents / research史学文献/研究。
●validate：证实; 使生效≈confirm ≠invalidate 使无效，证明错误
Gay and lesbian（女同） couples already can marry in 36 states and the District of Columbia. But in a 5-4 ruling, the court held that the 14th Amendment requires states to issue marriage licenses for same-sex couples and to recognize such marriages performed in other states.
The ruling means the remaining 14 states that did not allow such unions, in the South and Midwest, will have to stop enforcing their bans. Already, gay marriages were underway Friday in several states where they had been banned. A court in Atlanta issued marriage licenses to three same-sex couples Friday morning, soon after the decision. Other licenses reportedly were issued in Arkansas and Texas -- where Gov. Greg Abbott also issued a memo directing state agency heads to protect religious liberties.
●underway：进行中。外刊例句：An investigation is underway to identify the cause of the fire.目前已就火灾原因展开调查。
Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote the majority opinion, just as he did in the court's previous three major gay rights cases dating back to 1996.
"No union is more profound than marriage," Kennedy wrote, joined by the court's four more liberal justices. He continued: "Under the Constitution, same-sex couples seek in marriage the same legal treatment as opposite-sex(异性) couples, and it would disparage their choices and diminish their personhood（人格） to deny them this right."
The outcome is the culmination of two decades of Supreme Court litigation over marriage, and gay rights generally. Cheers broke out outside the Supreme Court when the decision was announced.
Speaking in the Rose Garden, as he did a day earlier after the high court upheld a key component of his health care overhaul, President Obama called the ruling a "victory for America."
●upheld：支持,维护(正义):We have a duty to uphold the law. 维护法律是我们的责任。 维持,确认(原判、裁决等):uphold a conviction / an appeal / a complaint 维持原判；受理上诉
The president said it would "end the patchwork system we currently have" and the uncertainty gay couples face over whether their unions will be recognized in other states.
●patch :补丁；修补，打补丁→patchwork :做名词 指拼凑物，大杂烩。 "This ruling will strengthen all of our communities," Obama said.
But other justices argued that the court should not be able to order states to change their marriage definition. Chief Justice John Roberts, in a dissent joined by Justices Clarence Thomas and Antonin Scalia, called the ruling an "extraordinary step."
"Many people will rejoice at this decision, and I begrudge none their celebration. But for those who believe in a government of laws, not of men, the majority's approach is deeply disheartening," he wrote. "... The majority's decision is an act of will, not legal judgment."
Roberts wrote: "If you are among the many Americans -- of whatever sexual orientation -- who favor expanding same-sex marriage, by all means celebrate today's decision. ... But do not celebrate the Constitution. It had nothing to do with it."
Each of the four dissenting（不同意的） justices also wrote a separate dissent. Prominent social conservatives（保守派）, meanwhile, blasted the decision. Tony Perkins, head of the Family Research Council, said it puts the government on a "collision（冲突） course with America's cherished religious freedoms（宗教自由）."
●conserve：保护，保存 →conservatism：保守主义→ conservative：保守的，守旧的conservative attitude/views
The ruling will not take effect immediately because the court gives the losing side roughly three weeks to ask for reconsideration（复议）. But some state officials and county clerks might decide there is little risk in issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples.